licentiate n : holds a license (degree) from a (European) university
- For other degrees, see Academic degree
Licentiate (from Latin licentia doctorandi = permission/right to teach) is the title of a person who holds an academic degree called a license. This degree exists in various African, European and Latin American countries but can represent different educational levels. It usually signifies someone who holds a certificate of competence to practise a profession.
ArgentinaIn Argentina, the licenciatura is a 4-5 year degree, generally equivalent to an M.Sc. in North American universities. In some cases it does not require the formal writing of a thesis, although almost invariably a quota of research is required.
AustraliaCurrently the only institution in Australia to grant licentiates - apart from theological colleges (see below) - is the Australian Music Examinations Board, which confers licentiate diplomas including the Licentiate in Music, Australia (LMusA).
BelgiumIn Belgian universities, a person titled Licentiate (or Licentiaat in Dutch or Licencié in French) holds the equivalent education of a master's degree. Students used to receive a license after 4 or 5 years of successful study. The first two years were known as kandidatuur (candidacy), meaning students were qualifying themselves for study at the licential level. This candidate-licentiate system is now being replaced by an American-style bachelor-master system. The Belgian licentiate was also equivalent to the doctorandus in the Netherlands. Study is very rigorous. Students in Belgian universities usually take more than 30 hours a week (as opposed to an average of 15 at American universities.) Thus, students are able to complete their (licentiate or master's) degrees in four or five years, as opposed to the usual six at American institutions.
BrazilIn Brazil, the licenciate is a 3-4 year degree that qualifies to teach in primary and secondary education.
CanadaWhile the term licentiate is not generally used by Canadian academic institutions, a Licentiate in Laws (LL.L.) is offered by some Canadian universities for the completion of studies equivalent to a Bachelor of Civil Law.
Costa RicaThis title is awarded to students after 5 years of study, they are required to write a thesis, attend a graduation seminar or develop a project in order to graduate.
Dominican RepublicIn Dominican Republic, a Licenciatura is awarded to students after 4 years of study, they are required to write a thesis or a monographic in order to graduate. Is one of the major University degree previous to doctoral studies.
FranceIn French universities, a licenciate (licencié(e)) is the holder of a licence, which is a three-year degree, roughly equivalent to an Anglo-Saxon bachelor's degree. There are two kinds of licence: general and professional.
GermanyIn Germany, a person titled Lizentiat holds the equivalent education of a master's degree or Diplom. Until the 1990s the degree was offered as a law degree at the University of the Saar as a single university degree (Lic.iur.) with a duration varying between 5 to 8-years. For political reasons this degree was discontinued, mainly because the Staatsexamen (Law degree) was predominantly representing the mainstream education of a lawyer. The Lizentiat is largely equivalent to the 1. Staatsexamen but unlike the latter is assessed by university, not the state administration. It also allowed specialisation in areas of the law which were either not covered by other legal qualifications, e.g. ecclesiastical law etc, or not covered to the same extent. Other disciplines such as theology or journalism (FU Berlin) used to offer a Lizentiat qualification instead of a PhD.
MexicoLicenciados. Not unlike Argentina's system, it is the de-facto professional qualification on a national level, but it doesn't give the right to practice, some careers like Medicine or Law require pass a national exam before they can practice. Most universities do not require a thesis to graduate, but for a number of years, it was the only method by which one could qualify for their title in the National University (UNAM); some colleges, such as the ITESO, replace the thesis with one year of professional practice. Conversions of the title range from being a B.A. to something as advanced as M.S., though most would qualify as a Master's degree in their respective fields (as is the case in the scientific, medical and engineering disciplines). As in Argentina, careers can span 4 to 5 years and usually continue on to a Master's Degree in a more generalized field. Master degrees are subsequently 2 years or less, as are the doctorates (doctorates can also be achieved straight out of the Licentiate, though comprising another 4 or 5 years in this case).
PeruA Licenciatura is awarded to students after 5 years of study, they are required to write a thesis or develop a research project in order to graduate.
PolandA "Licencjat" is a degree introduced in Poland after tertiary education reforms following the fall of Communism to bring the Polish university system roughly into line with European norms. It is typically a 3- or 4-year degree, equivalent to the Bachelor's degree in Anglophone countries. Students completing a Licencjat often go on to complete a Master's degree, previously the first undergraduate degree granted by Polish Universities.
PortugalIn the Portuguese higher education system, the licentiate's degree (Licenciatura) is the first degree awarded by institutions of higher education. It is the 1st cycle degree used in the European Higher Education Area, and is equivalent to the bachelor's degree which is widely used in other regions of the world, like in the United States.
Due to the new developments introduced by the Bologna Process in the mid-2000s, the term may still refer to both the old Licenciaturas which were awarded in Portugal before the "Bologna's reforms" (ranging from 4 to 6-year degrees), or the new Licenciaturas which have been awarded since then in Portugal and almost all Europe with varying local designations (3 or 4-year degrees) - the 1st study cycle degree.
HistoryBefore the Bologna Process, the Licenciatura was a single university degree with a duration varying between 4 to 6 years (with or without a final written dissertation, depending on the type of course or department), higher than the polytechnic 3-year Bacharelato degree (now discontinued), but lower than the Portuguese full scientific master's degree (Mestrado Científico). It conferred an automatic licensure for working in a particular profession and a full accreditation by the respective professional orders - ordens profissionais. The Portuguese polytechnic institutions used to award a single 3-year short cycle Bacharelato (lower than a bachelor's degree) degree, an undergraduate degree without neither the Licenciaturas licensure for working in a particular profession nor an accreditation by the respective professional orders. After 1998, the polytechnic institutions were legally upgraded to award new Licenciaturas Bietápicas (2-step licenciate's degree) which were a 3-years Bacharelato plus an additional optative 1 to 2-years cycle conferring a polytechnic Licenciatura. The Licenciatura diploma was also required for those applicants who wished to undertake master's and/or doctorate programs but admission were only allowed for Licenciatura degree owners with final grades over 13.5 (out of 20) - notice that a Portuguese full scientific master's degree (Mestrado) was not required for applicants to a doctorate program if their Licenciatura's final grade was over 15.5.
Due to Europe's Bologna Process, since 2006 the new Licenciatura degrees were organized at both universities and polytechnics - they are now a 1st study cycle (3 to 4 years) offered by any institution of higher education, and are the only required condition for any applicant who wish to undertake the second study cycle which awards a master's degree (now mandatory for doctorate programs). The process was not a mere formal administrative change because the curricula and the teaching methods of the new Bologna Licenciatura and Mestrado degrees are totally new. Like in the past, not all new "Bologna" licentiate's degrees are accredited by the ordens in the concerned field (for example, an accredited full chartered engineer must have a recognized diploma from the Ordem dos Engenheiros in a country where accredited courses in engineering are only about one-third of the total number of engineering courses offered by a large number of institutions).
After the Bologna Process, the Licenciatura became an undergraduate academic degree awarded to students by higher education institutions after a 3 or 4 year 1st cycle of study at a university, polytechnical institute or other higher education institution. Some courses (like engineering) are accredited only after the student finishes his second study cycle or a joint degree which confers the masters' degree (Mestrado). The first study cycle which confers the Licenciatura is not sufficient to be an accredited professional in some fields (for example a professional full chartered engineer, lawyer or architect) in Portugal or in Europe. On the other side, there are not Licenciatura degrees in fields like medicine because the shortest first study cycle in those fields after "Bologna", is a mandatory 6-year joint degree (Mestrado Integrado), so these students are awarded not less than a master's degree. In addition, some pharmacy, architecture or even certain engineering degrees offered by a number of universities are also joint degrees.
SpainIn Spain the Licenciatura degree is one of the major higher-education degrees previous to doctoral studies. This system will also be progressively changed for the 'Grado' (Bachelor) and 'Master' system due to the Bologna Declaration on the European space for higher education. Nowadays Licenciatura is consisting of 4 or 5 years (or 6 years in Medicine). Currently, Licenciatura degrees, Diplomatura degrees (3 years), Ingeniería Técnica (technical engineering) degrees (3 years) and Ingeniería degrees (4 to 6 years) are the undergraduate diplomas in Spain. Note, however, that the label "undergraduate" here may be misleading to an anglophone audience, since while a Spanish Diplomatura may be likened to an American undergraduate bachelor's degree, a Spanish Licenciatura is comparable in scope to an American postgraduate master's degree, as the anglophone distinction between "undergraduate" and "postgraduate" degrees (and between "colleges" and "universities") does not properly apply to the traditional higher-education system of several European countries such as Spain (modelled after the German system).
After the Bologna process, apparently (because the final decission has not yet been taken) Licenciatura and Ingeniería degrees will be divided into Grados (4 years) and Masters (1 or 2 years) and Diplomatura and Ingeniería Técnica will be upgraded to Grado (1 more year). Most of Ingeniería técnica and Ingeniería degrees will be unified because of their similarity. There will be exceptions for Pharmacy, Law, Odontology, Veterinary, Medicine, Architecture degrees. These ones will keep the 5 years (6 years in case of Medicine) in their curricula.
Finland and SwedenIn Swedish and Finnish universities, Licentiate's degree equals completion of the coursework required for a doctorate and a dissertation formally equivalent to half of a doctoral dissertation, likened to a MPhil degree in the British system. Its prerequisite is a completed academic Master's degree. The licentiate is particularly popular with students already involved in the working life, such that completing a full doctor's dissertation while working would be too difficult. The Licentiate's degree is called a filosofie licentiat in Swedish and filosofian lisensiaatti in Finnish (Licentiate of Philosophy), teologie licentiat and teologian lisensiaatti (Licentiate of Theology) etc, depending on the faculty. Furthermore, the requisite degree for a physician's license is lisensiaatti; there is no Master's degree. (The degree lääketieteen tohtori "Doctor of Medicine" is a traditional "professors degree", or a research doctorate, with Licentiate as a prerequisite.)
The Licentiate of Engineering (LicEng) is an intermediate postgraduate degree used only in a few countries, among them Sweden and Finland, and can be seen as an academic step halfway between a Master's and a PhD. In Swedish, it is called Teknologie Licentiat, usually abbreviated as Tekn. Lic., and in Finnish, tekniikan lisensiaatti, or TkL. The Licentiate of Engineering corresponds to 120 ECTS credits (80 old credits), or nominally two years of full – time work, whereas a PhD amounts to 240 ECTS credits (160 old credits), or a nominal period of four years of full – time work (one credit equals one week of full – time studies). However, as a result of the differences in requirements and individual performance, the time to complete a Licentiate of Engineering degree varies.
The programme for a licentiate degree is equivalent to a total of two years of full-time study for those who are awarded a doctoral position. A person who has a doctoral position normally teaches on the undergraduate programmes, equivalent to a maximum of 20% of the working time. It then ought to be possible for a licentiate degree to be taken within 2.5 years. (see http://www.chalmers.se/en/sections/education/current_students/joint_rules_and_dire/degree_system/licentiate_degree)
SwitzerlandIn Switzerland most of the first University degrees are called licentiate or licence, but mostly used in its abbreviation lic. (coming from Latin licentiatus (m) or licentiata (f)). It usually requires 4-7 years of study depending on the field of study. The second University degrees are called DEA or DESS degrees and are equivalent to a Master's degree and they qualify the holder for admission to doctoral studies. The licentiate will be progressively changed for the 'Bachelor' grade 3-years of study and the 'DEA & DESS' for the 'Master' grade 2-years of study, due to the Bologna Convention.
VenezuelaA Licenciatura is awarded to students after 5 years of study, they are required to write a thesis or develop a research project in order to graduate.
IndiaIn India, the Licentiate is a vocational qualification offered by the special vocational boards or professional bodies. These are offered after completion of school education and are somewhat less extensive than a full-fledged university degree. Issuers of the Licentiate degree include Insurance Institute of India, Association of Mutual Funds of India, the Diploma Examination Board of the government of Andhra Pradesh, etc.
HeraldryIn Canada, anyone who complete the Level III Heraldic Proficiency Courses will be granted the right to use the post-nominal of LRHSC (Licentiate of the Royal Heraldry Society of Canada). This is awarded by the Royal Heraldry Society of Canada.
Medicine, Surgery and ObstetricsIn Great Britain and Ireland, several initial medical qualifications are called licentiates. These include:
- Licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians (LRCP) awarded by the Royal College of Physicians of London,
- Licentiate of the Royal College of Surgeons (LRCS) - previously Member of the Royal College of Surgeons (MRCS) awarded by the Royal College of Surgeons of England
- Licentiate in Medicine and Surgery of the Society of Apothecaries (LMSSA), awarded by the Worshipful Society of Apothecaries of London
- Licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh (LRCPE), awarded by the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
- Licentiate of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (LRCSE) awarded by the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh
- Licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow (LRCPSG), awarded by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow
These Conjoint diplomas were latterly awarded by the United Examining Board. The first two, and latterly the first three, were granted together in England, and the last three in Scotland, until 1999, after which approval to hold the examinations was withdrawn. The qualifications are still registrable with the General Medical Council, and allow the bearer to practice medicine in the UK, and they used to be recognised by some state medical boards in the USA.
The Licentiate of Apothecaries' Hall was a similar qualifying medical diploma awarded externally in Dublin until recognition was lost in 1968.
In Dublin, students at the School of Medicine of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland still qualify with licentiate diplomas from the two Irish Royal Colleges, coupled with a Licence in Midwifery from each, although in the past few years they have also been awarded the three medical bachelor's degrees of the National University of Ireland:
Certain maternity hospitals in Dublin used to award a Licentiate in Midwifery or LM diploma, not to midwives but to qualified medical practitioners who had been examined there after a three month residential appointment. The Rotunda Hospital was the most recent to do so.
The Licentiate of Theology is a sub-degree or diploma- or master's-level qualification offered by a number of educational institutions.
Bologna ConventionIn 2003, the European Union organized the Bologna convention on higher education - 'The Bologna process' - in order to create uniform standards across the EU in that field. The resulting conclusions called for all European universities to change their degree programs to an undergraduate degree and a master's degree.
licentiate in Czech: Licenciát
licentiate in Danish: Licentiatgrad
licentiate in German: Lizenziat
licentiate in Esperanto: Licencio
licentiate in French: Licence (grade universitaire)
licentiate in Dutch: Licentiaat
licentiate in Polish: Licencjat
licentiate in Finnish: Lisensiaatti
licentiate in Swedish: Licentiatexamen